Resins are long chain, insoluble, cross linked, organic polymers. So this method is less preferred. Causes for sludge and scale: These are unaffected by boiling. Temporarily hard water is defined as that which can be softened by boiling. Resins containing basic functional groups —NH2, —OH are capable of exchanging their anions with other anions of hard water.

Each group of students will require: Surface of tubes becomes rough and resist to proper flow of the water. Non-toxic in free chlorine form. As a result, operation of boilers becomes dangerous especially in the high pressure boilers. Measuring cylinders 10 cm 3 , 5 one for each of A to E below.

The following solutions all 0.

Hardness of Water Essay Example for Free – Sample words

Each point of chlorine application will control a different water contaminant concern, thus providing a complete spectrum of treatment from the time the water enters the treatment facility to the time it leaves. The chemical reactions taking place in zeolite softener are: Internal treatment for sulfates The boiler temperature makes the calcium and magnesium sulfates within the feedwater insoluble. Temporarily hard water is defined as that which can be softened by boiling.

The softened water passes through a filtering media ensuring complete removal of the sludge and finally the filtered water flows out through the top.

chemistry coursework hardness of water

The hardness of water can never be definitive because the water in Brookings may be different than the water in Sioux Falls. The cation free water is fed to cylinder II where all the anions are replaced. It can be removed by water reboiling, whereby white solid emerges calcium carbonate that is limescale.


These bubbles are carried over by steam leading to excessive priming. Disadvantages of Zeolites Process: The salt deposit formed is a poor conductor of heat.

Investigate the hardness of water in 5 different water solutions

This reaction also occurs when rain water containing dissolved carbon dioxide flows over limestone rocks. Ion exchange process Advantages of Ion exchange method: Prevention of the sludge and scale formation can be done by two methods, namely, Internal conditioning method and External conditioning methods. People with hypertension or high blood pressure should consult their doctor about personal health risks associated hsrdness drinking softened water because of the added courswwork Mechanical filtration removes dirt, sediment, loose scale and insoluble iron and manganese.

Stopper the flask and shake it.

Chlorination is the most chfmistry disinfection method in drinking water treatment plants and can be done at any stage throughout the water treatment process. All internal treatment chemicals, whether phosphate, chelate, or polymer, condition the calcium and magnesium within the feedwater.

Hard water contains dissolved calcium or magnesium salts that react with soap solution to form an insoluble scum that should be seen as a white cloudiness in the tubes: Internal treatment for silica If silica is present in the feedwater, it tends to precipitate directly as scale at hot spots on the boiler metal and or combines with calcium forming a hard calcium silicate scale.

chemistry coursework hardness of water

If it helps though I found these pages on water hardness: The water is fed into cylinder-I where all the cations are replaced by RH2 resins. A rapid drop in the disinfectant residual may provide a immediate indication of treatment process malfunction or a break in the integrity of the distribution system.


Chemistry coursework hardness of water – Case Study: Hard Water – Chemistry LibreTexts

Suitable conditions for the titration are achieved by the addition of a buffer solution having a pH value of On boiling, the reaction is reversed, softening the water: How about make it original? Causes of hardness, expression of hardness — units — types of hardness Hardness is defined as the concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions which is expressed in terms of calcium carbonate. The reverse osmosis removes inorganic minerals such as radium, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, nitrate, fluoride, boron and phosphorous.

Adjust the level of the solution to zero mark. Some microorganisms may be small enough to pass through the reverse osmosis membrane and colonize the holding hardnfss. Sign up to Comment. Internal treatment for chemlstry conditioning Chemisty treatment for hardness leads to insoluble precipitates in the boiler that form sludge. This would cause excess EDTA to be present causing inaccurate results.

All the cations and anions are completely removed by two column of cation exchange column and anion exchange column filled with resins.

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