As another fundamental characteristics he puts forth that “you do not start out with a priori theoretical notions” ibid. However, these issues will be addressed again in Section 4. The four conditions or tests are cf. According to JICK , “[q]ualitative data and analysis function as the glue that cements the interpretation of multimethod results” p. First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented.

However, this seems to be rather the description of a general approach to analyzing documents qualitatively. Therefore, qualitative content analysis can be viewed as a comprehensive approach to data analysis, which seems to be especially suitable for case study research. The second phase to was characterized by a renewal methodology, covering qualitative and quantitative approach, which have strengthened over the decades. Two fundamental mechanisms underlie the process of coding and categorizing the contents of a corpus: Besides, it was claimed that case studies lack in rigor and reliability and that they do not address the issue of generalizability in contrast to quantitative methods HARTLEY, , p. However, he fails to go into greater detail concerning this matter. Within a feedback loop the categories are revised, eventually reduced to main categories and checked in respect to their reliability MAYRING, a, [12].

The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research – Semantic Scholar

The practice of social research 9th qqualitative. If the lack of reliability cannot be attributed to abor cthen the problem is usually with the coders and may perhaps be solved by more careful analysie, more thorough training, shorter operation periods, etc.

Thus, we believe that this qualitative CA may in fact to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in psychology. Services on Demand Journal. Subsequently, it will be helpful to consider whether the case study will be exploratory, descriptive or explanatory and a key decision to be made is whether the research will be based on a single case study or on multiple cases HARTLEY,p.

The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

Basic proceeding of qualitative content analysis Source: Additionally, other simplifying elements of the fundamental aspects of the phenomenon are taken into account for the new alignment, being necessary to resort to the theoretical model 2 and to the abstract theory 2. Or, put the other way round: The first was influenced by the Chicago School thinkers who defined the content analysis as a research technique for the purpose of objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication.


On the first and more obvious level, data is triangulated by integrating different material and evidence see Section 5. Deconstructing the qualitative-quantitative divide. Data are observable and collected in certain contexts, therefore they are situational, and as such, they suffer perceptual biases. This means that qualitative researchers study 2006.he in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them” p.

Within a feedback loop the categories are qualitatife, eventually reduced to main categories and checked in respect to their reliability MAYRING, a, [12].

The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research – ePubWU

Last but not least, when using qualitative content analysis in case study research, one should be aware qualitattive the fact that “[r]eplicating a mixed-methods package […] is a nearly impossible task” JICK,p.

Obviously, the central part of the process—structuring—is derived from classical content analysis, because here, too, units of coding and evaluation are set up and arranged in a schema of categories TITSCHER et al.

Indeed, the case study’s unique strength is “its ability to deal with a full variety of evidence—documents, artifacts, interviews, and observations” YIN, a, p.

kohlbacher f. 2006.the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research

While the first means collecting data in the form of numbers the second means collecting data in the kkhlbacher of words or pictures ibid. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung7 1. Model is an interpretative description of the phenomenon that facilitates the intellectual or perceptual access to it.

kohlbacher f. 2006.the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research

A case study investigation of support processes and interventions for potential ogre behaviours in Tasmanian secondary schools Al Heath One of the strengths of qualitative content analysis is usf way it tries to synthesize openness—as claimed by the qualitative research paradigm—and theory-guided investigation—usually demanded by the hypothetical-deductive paradigm. Finally an “explicatory paraphrase” is made of the particular portion of text and the explication is examined with reference to the total context.

Therefore, a case study cannot be defined through its research methods, but rather fo terms of its theoretical orientation and interest in individual cases HARTLEY,p. If the search is conducted uuse an CA as a resource ad hocin the end, there are empirical generalizations of inductive nature that may, in the absence of a seated robust phenomenon in the phenomenon-theory-datum axis, result in spray the findings, expanding the empirical base without a consideration of theoretical development.


The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research. If, on the casr hand, the pre-categorization facilitates the alignment between the purpose of the research and the interpretation, on the other hand, it can limit the alternative possibilities of corpus analysis in the coding phase and thus, it discourages the creativity of the researcher and the exploration of alternative ways of analysis.

Quantitative content analysis does not provide satisfactory answers to the question where the categories are derived from, and how the system of categories is developed.

Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse, Grundlagen und Techniken 8th ed.

kohlbacher f. 2006.the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research

Inclusion of quantitative steps of analysis: This is certainly a great advantage when dealing with various, heterogeneous types of data material. Interestingly, the deduction starts from the rule to the datum to extract the conclusion inferencewhile in the case of the induction, it starts from the datum in order to complete something, and then make the leap to the rule theory.

Finally, the use of qualitative content analysis for conducting case study research is examined and evaluated. In fact, despite this openness, qualitative content analysis is strictly controlled methodologically and the material is analyzed in a step-by-step process see Section 4. Thus, it is assumed that phenomena have relative stability and, depending on the theoretical model and the abstract theory of which it is a simplification, it can be analyzed from various perspectives; but as much of the researches that use CA, it does not take into account the clear existence of a phenomenon, this point can be difficult to understand.

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